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The Y’s purpose is to strengthen communities; fundamentally, strong communities are equitable communities. We recognize we are one small cog in the community wheel but fully embrace our responsibility to continue critical work to end systemic racism, bigotry, discrimination and hate. The Y has journeyed through this work for over 175 years and while we have made significant strides, we acknowledge that there is much work ahead of us. Part of this work includes telling the story of the tragic and difficult times in our communities’ history because stories re-told are stories not relived.
Our impact and relevancy are directly tied to our efforts to fight for greater inclusion and equity for all. This work is rooted in our inclusive mission and is the soul of our Movement.
As an anchor in the communities we serve, the Y strives to be a beacon for good and systemic change.
We must go forward with a fire in our souls and hope in our hearts.
African-American Resource Center, Tulsa City-County Library
Archive of American Journalism. 2018 Reporting: The Tulsa Race Riot/ 921
The Atlantic.com, sponsored by HBO. The Illustrated Story Behind the Massacre of Black Wall Street.
Avery, Ruth. Fear: The Fifth Horse, Interview of Damie Rowland Ford, July 22, 1972.
Brown, DaNeen L. “They Was Killing Black People.” Washington Post. September 28, 2018.
The Crusader Magazine. July, 1921.
Douglas, Clarence B. The History of Tulsa, Oklahoma, Volume 1.
Ellsworth, Scott. Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.
First Baptist Church, North Tulsa website. http://fbcnt.org/members-guests-history/
Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans.
Gates, Eddie Faye. Riot on Greenwood: The Total Destruction of Black Wall Street.
Halliburton, R., Jr. The Tulsa Race War of 1921.
Hine, Darlene Clark, Hine, William C., Harold, Stanley. African Americans: A Concise History.
Hower, Robert, N. “1921 Tulsa Race Riot and American Red Cross ‘Angels of Mercy.’” 1992.
John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation. Curriculum Resources – Meet the Survivors. https://www.jhfcenter.org/1921-race-massacre-survivors
Johnson, Hannibal B. Black Wall Street: From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District.
1921 Race Massacre Commission Website: https://www.tulsa2021.org/
Krehbiel, Randy. Tulsa 1921 Reporting a Massacre.
Lee, Paul. “The Day Greenwood Burned.” Essence Magazine. May 2001.
Luckerson, Victor. TheRinger.com. Black Wall Street: The African American Haven That Burned and Then Rose From the Ashes. June 28, 2018. https://www.theringer.com/2018/6/28/17511818/black-wall-street-oklahoma-greenwood-destruction-tulsa
News on 6. “New Historical Marker Cites Role Standpipe Hill Played In Race Riot.” June 12, 2014. https://www.newson6.com/story/5e3630172f69d76f6204fc00/new-historical-marker-cites-role-standpipe-hill-played-in-race-riot
New Tulsa Star. Victory of Greenwood: Dr. Olivia Hooker. https://newtulsastar.com/2021/01/17/victory-of-greenwood-dr-olivia-hooker/
Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. “Tulsa Race Riot.”
Parrish, Mary E. Jones. Race Riot 1921: Events of the Tulsa Disaster.
Race Riot Commission Report. https://opac.tulsalibrary.org/search/t?-SEARCH=report+tulsa+race+riot+-disaster
Red Cross Emergency Relief Items Catalogue.
Pamphlet available at the Greenwood Cultural Center, Tulsa, OK. A Century of African-American Experience- Greenwood: Ruins, Resilience, and Renaissance. (2003).
Smitherman, A.J. The Tulsa Race Riot and Massacre.
Tulsa City-County Library website: https://www.tulsalibrary.org/tulsa-race-riot-1921
Tulsa City Directory 1914-1925. https://www.tulsalibrary.org/research/african-american-resource-center/1921-tulsa-race-massacre
Tulsa Preservation Commission. 1921 Race Riot National Register Nomination (Tulsa World). https://www.tulsaworld.com/news/local/government-and-politics/race-riot-nomination-to-national-register-of-historic-places-ok/article_4095d4e3-f6bc-5204-a8fc-e463333bd269.html
Tulsa Tribune. Clipping: The Y.M.C.A. Cafeteria. June 5, 1921. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/52679328/the-tulsa-tribune/
Tulsa World. “Hutcherson Named After Early YMCA Director.” November 6, 1992. https://tulsaworld.com/archive/hutcherson-named-after-early-ymca-director/article_97939dfd-2307-5442-be69-1dd36f3d3361.html
Tulsa World. “Hutcherson YMCA to Celebrate 75 Years of Service. December 15, 1994. https://tulsaworld.com/archive/hutcherson-ymca-to-celebrate-75-years-of-service/article_613e40bf-dcd0-5f0e-a194-b51bae92954b.html
Tulsa World. “Nab Negro for Attacking Girl In An Elevator.” Originally Tulsa Tribune. May 31, 1921. https://tulsaworld.com/archive/nab-negro-for-attacking-girl-in-an-elevator/article_758e0217-1077-5282-bdb9-4eef81f8e12d.html
Tulsa World. “Timeline: The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre.” October 24, 2019. https://tulsaworld.com/news/local/racemassacre/timeline-the-tulsa-race-massacre/collection_1c02a7b4-86ce-11e8-b63d-c3bbb45d4a6c.html?utm_medium=social&utm_source=email&utm_campaign=user-share#1
Y.W.C.A. Meeting Minutes October 11, 1921 and January 6, 1923. Acquired at Tulsa Historical Society, 2021.